Natural Resources and Environmental Degradation


Pokok bahasan meliputi: Fundamental Concepts and Principles and a review of how the environment works; the flow of energy through food webs and the movement of materials in the ecosystem, law of tolerance, law of the minimum, and other related concepts and principles. Water resources: The role of water in the environment, human uses of water, water supply and availability and importance of and threats to ground water reserves. Lakes, Coastal and Marine Waters. The lecture focuses on surface water pollution, their causes and consequences, management strategies with special focus on selected lakes, coastal areas and the Indonesia Ocean. Solid and Hazardous Wastes. This lecture is a presentation of the nature, properties and sources of solid wastes and toxic chemicals, the requirements of their safe disposal and the factors that cause disposal problems to remain unresolved.

Air Pollution: air pollution sources, effects on human health and other species, and possible long-term impact on climate. Indoor air pollution will be an interesting sub-topic. Deforestation: the causes and consequences of large-scale removal of forest cover in the region. Mitigating measures as applied by different countries will be presented. Biodiversity Loss: the richness of the flora and fauna in Asia and the Pacific and the imperatives for their conservation-especially the important genetic resources, i.e. wildlife. Food Resources and Hunger: the efforts, the resources and the constraints in feeding the growing human populations. Land Degradation: The soil and how it is being ruined by erosion, water logging, salinization and application of farm chemicals. Special attention is given to soil that is acknowledged to be of poor quality than elsewhere in the world. Causes of Environmental Degradation: The various factors said to be the causes for environmental degradation in the region: rapid population growth, poverty, economic growth, and institutional and policy failures. The validity of each argument will be examined during the discussions. Costs of Environmental Degradation: the economic and the non-economic costs of environmental degradation in Indonesia region.


Dosen  : Dr. Ir. Sudarto, MS

Prof. Ir. Yeny Risjani DEA, PhD.


1.     Bailey, R.G. 1998. Ecoregions: the Ecosystem Geography of the Oceans and Continents. Spring, NY. 176 pp.

2.     Barrow, C.J. 1991. Land Degradation: Development and Breakdown of Terrestrial Environments. Cambridge Univ. Press. 295 pp.

3.     Chapin, F.S. III, P.A. Matson, and H.A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Springer, N.Y. 436 pp.

5.     FAO,  1996. Assessment  of  status  of  human‐induced  soil  degradation  in  southeast  Asia  (Assod):Process  report  in  proceeding  of  the  expert  consultation  of  the  Asian  network  on  problem  soils.  Manila  Philipines,23‐27  October,1975  :  39p

6.     FAO, 1994 . Land  degradation  in  South  Asia  :Its  severity,  Causes  and  effect  upon  the  people  world  soil  resources  reports  No.78.ISSN  0532‐0488:102p

7.     FAO, 1994. The  collection  any  Analysis  of  land  degradation  data  , Report  of  the  expert  consultation  of  the  Asian  network  on  problem  soils.  Bangkok,  Thailand  ,25‐29  October  1993:261p

8.     Nyle  C.  Brady, 2001. Natural  and  properties  of  soils.  10th   edition. Prentice  –  hall  of   India,  Private  Limited,  New  Delhi ‐ 11001: 621p.

9.     Schlesinger, W.H. 1997. Biogeochemistry: an Analysis of Global Change (2nd ed.). Academic Press, NY. 588 pp.


Benchmarking: Mahidol  University  International  College,  Faculty  of Science,  Faculty  of  Environment  and  Resource  Studies,  Mahidol University