The course objectives are to develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between architectural design and the environmental forces of sun, wind, and light. This design-centered course is intended to help you develop the ability to quickly test your architectural designs against fundamental ECS criteria informed by an understanding of effective and efficient ways to use energy and other environmental resources.

Course content: ENERGY, HUMAN COMFORT AND HVAC SYSTEMS: Energy, 1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics; Fuels, combustion, efficiency and power; Heat flow and the building envelope;  Human Comfort: Metabolism, homeostasis, equilibrium and human comfort; Atmospheric and thermal comfort criteria;  Psychometrics, sensible and latent heat;  Enthalpy.   Heat Flow: Convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation: magnitude and direction; Heat gain & loss, steady state conditions;  Heat flow computations; R factor, U factors and infiltration;  Thermal gradients, dew points and vapor barriers;  Transfer through opaque construction, changes in air (CFM) and changes in moisture content.  HVAC Systems: Heat loss, gain, and system “load” demands;  Degree of control, spatial, economic implications;  Zoning concepts, building occupancy, design and orientations;  All-air systems; Air-water systems; All-water, hydronic systems;  Direct refrigerant, heat pump systems.  FLUID SYSTEMS, HEALTH: SANITATION AND FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS.   Resources:  Surface, ground water supplies, aquifers, wells, springs and hydrology;  Hydrologic cycle;  Pumping, treatment and storage;  Wells, municipal sources and distribution systems.  Distribution:  Pressure, pneumatics, hydraulics, theoretical and actual P.S.I. pressure; Pumping and storage systems, components; Sizing of plumbing networks; demand P.M.D. fixture units (F.U.) and codes;  Systems distribution networks, components and flow control.   Collection/Disposal.  Fire Protection Systems.  LIGHT, VISION AND LIGHTING DESIGN:  Light;  Vision;  Light Sources;  Lighting Design. SOUND, HEARING AND ACOUSTICAL DESIGN :  Sound;  Hearing;  Room Acoustics;  Sound/Isolation;  Mechanical Sound Amplification.



1.    Brown, Z.G., and DeKay, Mark. 2001. Sun, Wind & Light, 2nd Edition . New York: John Wiley + Sons.

2.    Allen, Ed, and Iano, Joseph. 2001. The Architects Studio Companion, 3rd Edition. New York: John Wiley + Sons.

3.    Stein, Reynolds, Grondzik, Kwok. 2006. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10th edition. New York: Wiley + Sons.


Benchmarking: Washington State University.